Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Depression Among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in The Family Medicine Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Nigeria.

Main Article Content

Comfort Oritseweyimi Imarhiagbe
Christian Ibe Dickson
Titi Precious-Ibiye Owen
Modupeoluwa Omotunde Soroye
Ada Nkemagu Okocha
Paul Owajionyi Dienye


Sociodemographics, Depression, Diabetes, Family Medicine


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) with rising prevalence worldwide. DM increases the risk for depression as the prevalence of depression has been reported to be three times more in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Though depressive symptoms are more common in diabetes, they are not usually recognized and treated. Little is known about the predictors of depression in this group of people, especially among the Nigerian population. This study explored the sociodemographic factors associated with depression in patients with type 2 DM without prior psychiatric history.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among two hundred and sixty-four patients using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Chi-square tests were performed to compare associations between categorical variables. A probability (p) value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results: Females [176 (66%)] were three times more than males [88 (33.3%)] respectively. The prevalence of depression was 49.2%. Level of education (p= 0.008), occupation (p= 0.014), and social class (p= 0.040) were significantly associated with depression among the respondents. Depression was higher among the older age group, females, and the widowed.

Conclusions: Females and older adults were more affected by depression. The predictors of depression were level of education, occupation, and social class. Thus, there is a need to screen those who have been diagnosed with T2DM for depression, especially females and older adult patients.

Abstract 26 | PDF Downloads 20 HTML Downloads 4


1. Igwe MN, Uwakwe P, Ahanoto CA,Onyeama GM, Bakare MO, Ndukuba AC. Factors associated with depression and suicide among patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Afr Health Sci. 2013; 13(1): 68 – 77.

2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.5th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association;2013.

3. World Health Organization. Depression-fact sheet.2018. Available at:

4. Accessed April 2018

5. Hussain S, Habib A, Singh A, Akhtar M, Najmi AK. Prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in India: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry research.2018;270:264-273.

6. James BO, Omoaregba JO, EzeG, Morakinyo O. Depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in Nigeria tertiary hospital. S.Afr J Psychiatr.2010; 16 (2): 61 – 64.

7. Andreoulakis E, Hyphantis T, Kandylis D, Lakovides A. Depression in diabetes mellitus: a comprehensive review. Hippocratia. 2012; 16 (3) 205-214.

8. Katon WJ, Lin EH, Russo J, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, Simon G, et al. Cardiac risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus and major depression. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:1192–1199.

9. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edition. Brussels, Belgium: 2021. Available at: Accessed April 2022

10. Nouwen A, Winkley K and Twist J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2010; 53(12): 2480-2486.

11. Teshome HM, Ayalew GD, Shiferaw FW, Leshargie CL and Boneya DJ. The prevalence of Depression among Diabetic patients in Ethiopia; A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis 2018 Depress Res Treat. 2018; 2018. Available at Accessed June 2018

12. Naskar S, Victor R, Nath K. Depression in diabetes mellitus – A comprehensive systematic review of literature from an Indian perspective. Asian J Psychiatr.2017;27:85–100.

13. Agbir TM, Adebowale TO, Audu MD, Goar SG. Clinical correlates of depression among diabetics in Jos, Nigeria. J Med Trop. 2010; 12:37-41

14. Tol A, Baghbanian A, Mohebbi B, Shojaeizadeh D, Azam K, Shahmirzadi SE, et al. Empowerment assessment and influential factors among patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes MetabDisord.2013;12:6.

15. Chowdhury SH, Karim MN, Selim S, Ahmed F, Azad AK, Maksud SA, et al. Risk of depression among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes MetabSyndr.2017;11(2):1009–1012.

16. Araoye MO. Sample size calculation. Research methodology with statistics for health and social sciences. Ilorin: Nathadex Publishers; 2004:115-121.

17. Miller CD, Phillips LS, Tate MK, Porwoll JM, Rossman SD, Cronmiller N et al. Meeting American Diabetes Association guidelines in endocrinologist practice. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(4):444-448.

18. Gupta S, Jain U, Chauhan N. Laboratory diagnosis of HbA1c: a review. J Nanomed Res. 2017;5(4):00120.

19. El-Mahalli AA. Prevalence and predictors of depression among type 2 diabetes mellitus out-patients in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Health Sciences, 2015; 9(2): 119-126

20. Ofori SN, Adiukwu FN. Screening for depressive symptoms among patients attending Specialist Medical Outpatient in a Tertiary Hospital in South Nigeria. Psychiatry J. 2018; 2016: 1-6

21. Hall KK, Tambekou J, Penn L, Camara A, Balde MM, Sobngwi E. Association between depression,glycaemic control and the prevention diabetic retinopathy in a diabetic population in Cameroon. S Afri J Psychiat. 2017; 23:1-7

22. Wang J, Wu X, Lai W, Long E, Zhang Y, Li W et al. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among outpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2017; 7(8): e 017173. Doi: 10.1136/bmjopen.2017-017173

23. Rezia R, Islam A, Islam SMS, Depressive symptoms among participants with type 2 diabetes in Southeast Asia. A systematic review. J Diabetol 2018; 9(1): 19-24

24. Dienye PO, Gbeneol PK, Akani AB. Association Between Giant Hydrocele and Depression in a Rural Clinic in Nigeria. Am J Men Health. 2011; 5 (5): 438-443

25. Adiari O, Cambell PC. Prevalence and severity of Depression among people living with HIV/AIDS in a Tertiary Hospital.Nigeria Hospital Practice. 2014; 14(1-2):3-15

26. Obadeji A, Olowoin LO, Dada MU, Ajiboye AS, Kumolalo BF, Solomon OA. Assessment of depression in a primary care setting in Nigeria using the PHQ-9.Family Practice. 2015;4(1):10-34

27. Genasageren K, Renganathan P, Manf RA, Al-Dubai SAR. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes out patients in Malaysia; a descriptive cross sectional single centre study, BMJ Open journal of Clinical Pathology. 2014; 4: 1-7

28. Onya ON, Stanley PC. Risk Factor for depressive illness among elderly GOPD Attendees at UPTH.Int Res. J Medical Sci. 2013; 1(6): 1-9

29. Salihu AS, Udofia O. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression among general outpatients in a tertiary Institution in Kano North Western Nigeria. O J Psych. 2016;6(3): 228-236.

30. Berg LL, Ruse T, Knudsen KA. Depression in persons with by age and antidiabetic treatment; a cross-sectional analysis with Data from Hondaland Health Survey.PloS one 2015

31. Ichibuzo FMUO. Influence of social support, age and religious commitment on depressive symptoms among cancer patients 2013. Available from>RpositiryAccessed June 2017

32. Adofu I, Al Hassan A. Insecurity and economic development in Nigeria. Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development. 2018; 9(18): 101-111

33. Leone T, Coast E, Narayanan S, Aikins A. Diabetes and Depression comorbidity and socio-economic status in low- and middle income countries (LMICs): a mapping of evidence. Global Health. 2012; 8:39

Most read articles by the same author(s)