Patients’ satisfaction, Diabetic Control and Associated Factors at a Tertiary Health Facility in Rivers State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Affiong John
Geraldine Ndukwu
Paul Dienye


Diabetes Mellitus, quality of care, patient satisfaction, glycemic control


Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and diabetes mellitus (DM) is the fourth main contributor. The incidence of its complications could be reduced with high-quality care and good glycaemic control. Treatment satisfaction is an important aspect of quality of care, especially in treating chronic diseases like DM. This study sought to determine the satisfaction of diabetics with their care and to identify the relationship between patients’ satisfaction and diabetic control alongside other associated factors.

Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Respondents were admitted into the study based on inclusion criteria and selected using systematic random sampling technique. Blood samples for fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol were collected. Diabetic Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to assess treatment satisfaction. SPSS version 21.0 was used for data analysis and linear regression was used to determine the factors influencing satisfaction. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

Results: The mean total Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction score was 33.8 ± 8.2 and the mean total Short Form Patient Satisfaction score was found to be 16.8 ± 3.6. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean satisfaction scores with treatment of diabetes mellitus and age groups (p < 0.001).  There was a statistically significant association between DM treatment satisfaction with the use of oral antidiabetic agents (p = 0.043) and presence of complications (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between patient satisfaction scores and other factors like accessibility and convenience, time spent with doctors, and so on. In conclusion, the study identified the use of oral anti-diabetic agents, and the presence of complications, among others as factors affecting patient satisfaction. This study, therefore, suggests improving the practice of patient-centered medicine by increasing patient satisfaction through addressing these factors.

Abstract 35 | PDF Downloads 18 HTML Downloads 3


1. Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, Jane-Llopis E, Abraham-Gessel S, Bloom LR, Fathima S. The Global Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva: World Economic Forum. 2011. Available at http// (accessed 16 July 2015).

2. Bener A, Al-Hanaz AO, Yousafzai MT, Abdul-Ghani M. Relationship between patients satisfaction with diabetes care and treatment. Niger. J Clin Pract.2014;17(2):218-225.

3. Mohan V, Seedat Y, pradeepa R. The rising burden of diabetes and hypertension in Southeast Asia and African region. International Journal Of Hypertension. 2013;10(7):14-28.

4. Maiyaki MB, Garbati MA. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria in the context of globalization. Ann Afr MedJ.2014;13(1):1-10.

5. Azevedo M, Alla S. Diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Zambia. Int J Diabetes Dev Countries.2008;28(4):7-9.

6. Chinenye S, Uloko A, Ogbera AO, Ofoegbu EN, Olufemi AF, Adesoji AF. Profile of Nigerian with diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal Of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2012;12(4):6-9.

7. World Health Organization. World health statistics, African region Nigeria. Updated January 2015. Available at (accessed 17 July 2015)

8. Ogbera A, Ekpebegh C. Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(6):905-911.

9. Zhou B, Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Danaei G et al. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4·4 million participants. The Lancet. 2016;387(10027):1513-1530

10. Houle J, Lauzier-Jobin F, Beaulieu M, Meunier S, Coulombe S, Côté J et al. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis. BMJ Open Diab Res Care.2016;4(1):184-190.

11. Fomba S, Yang Y, Huan Z, Qiaolan L, Xiao PM. Patient utilization and perception of the quality of curative care in community health of fifth commune of Bamako. Indian J community Med.2010;35(2):256-261.

12. Al-Sharani A, Baraja M. Patient satisfaction and its relation to diabetes control in a primary care setting. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2014;3(1):5-11.

13. Peyrot M, Rubin R. Modeling determinants of treatment satisfaction and preference. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(8):1411-1417.

14. World Health Organisation. A process for making strategic choices in health systems. Updated January 1, 2015. Available at: Accessed 5 May 2015.

15. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on the Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult treatment panel III).2001;1:3305.

16. Centre for Disease Control. National diabetes statistics report. Updated May 15, 2015. Available at http// Accessed on 10 September 2015

17. Ekpeyong C, Akpan U, Ibu J, Nyebule D. Gender and age specific prevalence and associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria. Diabetologia Croatia. 2012;41(2):17-28

18. Isara AR, Omonigho L, Olaoye D. Non-medical management practices for type 2 diabetics in a teaching hospital in Southern Nigeria. African Journal Of Diabetes Medicine. 2014;22(2):10-14

19. Otero L, Zanetti M, Teixera C. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of diabetic population at a primary level health care centre. Rev Latino-Am Enfermagem. 2007;15(5):768-773.

20. Veghari G, Sedaghat M, Joshaghani H, Hoseini S, Niknezad F, Angizeh A et al. Association between socio-demographic factors and diabetes mellitus in the North of Iran: A population-based study. International Journal Of Diabetes mellitus 2010;2(9):154-157.

21. Gezawa ID, Puepet FH, Mubi BM, Uloko AE, Bakki B, Talle M et al. Sociodemographic and anthrometric risk factors for type 2 in Maiduguri, North Eastern, Nigeria. Sahel Med J.2015;18(5):2-7

22. Kuteyi EA, Bello IS, Olaleye TM, Ayeni IO, Amede MI. Determinants of patient satisfaction with physical interaction: A cross-sectional survey at Obafemi Awolowo University Health centre, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. South African Family Practice. 2010;52(6):557-562.

23. Adeniyi AA, Adegbite KO, Braimoh MO, Ogunbanjo BO. Factors affecting patient satisfaction at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic. Afr J Med Sci. 2013;42(1):25-31.

24. Thiedke CC. What do we really know about patient satisfaction? Family Practice Management.2007;14(1):33-36.

25. Othman ZJ, Hussein H, Alfaisal W, Wasfy A. Predictors of patient satisfaction among diabetic population attending primary health care centres at Dubai Health Authority. Quality In Primary Care.2015;23(4):205-213.

26. Kandelakil K, Marrone G, Lundborg C, Schimidt I, Bjorkman I. Patient-centeredness as a quality domain in Swedish healthcare: Results from the first national surveys in different Swedish healthcare settings. BMJ. 2016;6(1):1105-1109.

27. Rajbanshi L, Dungana GP, Gurung YK, Koirala D. Satisfaction with healthcare services of outpatient department at Chitwan medical college teaching hospital, Nepal. Journal of Chitwan Medical College. 2014;4(7):11-18. http// (accessed 12 Feb 2016).

28. Rahmqvist M, Bara A. Patient characteristics and quality dimensions related to patient satisfaction. International Journal For Quality In Health Care. 2010;22(2):86-92.

29. Al-Sakkah M, Al-Nowaiser N, Al-Khashan, Ashraf A, Jaber R. Patient satisfaction with primary health care services in Riyadh. Saudi Med J. 2008;29(3):2008.

30. Biderman A, Noffb E, Harisc S, Friedmand N, Levye A. Treatment satisfaction of Diabetic patients: what are the contributing factors? Oxford Journals of Medicine And Health. 2009;26(2):102-108.

31. Nicolucci A, Cucinotta D, Squatrito S, Lapolla A, Musacchio N, Leotta S. Clinical and socioeconomic correlates of quality of life and treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism And Cardiovascular Disease.2009;19(1):45-53.

32. Ham H, Peck E, Moon H, Yeon H. Predictors of patient satisfaction with tertiary hospitals in Korea. Nursing Research and Practice.2015;20(15):74-75.

33. Adamu H, Oche MO. Patient satisfaction with services at a general outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine And Medical Research. 2014;4(11):2181-2202.

34. Amole BB, Oyatoye EO, Kaye OL. Determinants of patient satisfaction on service quality dimensions in the Nigeria teaching hospitals. Economics Management Innovation. 2015;7(3):3-20.

35. Nasir F, Herani GM, Ahmad N. Identifying factors affecting patients' satisfaction against quality of health care services: an investigation from Aga Khan hospital Karachi. JEL Classification.2012;3(118):15.

36. Onwujekwe A, Etiaba E, Oche AM. Patient satisfaction with health care services: a case study of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, North central Nigeria. International Journal of Medicine and Health Development. 2013; 18(1):5-9.

37. Anderson RT, Canacho FT, Balkishnan R. Willing to wait: the influence of patient wait time on satisfaction with primary care. BMC Health Services Research.2007;7(31):63-67.

38. Nabbuye-Sekandi J, Makumbi F, Kasangaki A, Kizza I, Tugumisirize J, Nshimye E et al. Patient satisfaction with services in outpatient clinics at Mulago hospital, Uganda. International Journal for Quality in Health Care.2011;10(9):516-523.

39. Ziaei H, Katibeh M, Eskandari A, Mirzadeh M, Rabbanikhah Z,Javadi MA. Determinants of patient satisfaction with ophthalmic services. BMC Research Notes 2011;4(7):7-10.

40. Tateke T, Woldie M, Oloso S. Determinants of patient satisfaction with outpatient health services at public and private hospitals in Adis Ababa, Ethiopia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2012;4(1):1-11.

41. Umeano-Enemuoh JC, Onwujekwe OE, Uzochukwu B, Ezeoke OP. Patients' satisfaction and quality of care in a tertiary institution in South East Nigeria. International Research Journal of Basic and Clinical Studies.2014;2(2):14-19.

42. Nosaki T, Monta C, Matsubayashi S, Ishido K, Yokoyama H, Kawai K. Relationship between psychological variables and glycaemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study. Biopsychosocial Medicine.2009;3(1):3-4.

43. Shehab A, Elnour A, Adulle A. A clinical audit on diabetes care in patients with type 2 diabetes in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. The Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal. 2012;6(1):126-132.

44. Udonwa N, Ogbonna U. Patient-related factors influencing satisfaction in the patient-doctor encounters at the general outpatient clinic of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. International Journal of Family Medicine. 2012;2012(2012):7.