Metabolic Syndrome in HIV: Prevalence, Correlate, Concordance of Diagnostic Criteria and Relationship to Carotid Intimal Media Thickness in a sub-Saharan Population.

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Lucius Chidiebere Imoh
Charles Chibunna Ani
Kuleve Othniel Iyua
Stephen Mawun Lukden
Courage Uhumwangho
Nathan Yakubu Shehu
Jeremiah Onubi
Christian Ogoegbunem Isichei
Basil Nwaneri Okeahialam


HIV, Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease risk, dyslipidaemia


Background: The prevalence and usefulness of MetS in determining CVD risk in at-risk populations are influenced by its definition. In a cohort of HIV-positive Nigerians, we evaluated MetS based on various defining criteria, their agreement with one another, and their association to a CVD endpoint, Carotid-Intimal-Media-Thickness (CIMT).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 145 HIV-positive individuals who were enrolled in HIV clinics at the Faith Alive Foundation and Jos University Teaching Hospital in Jos, Nigeria, were randomly chosen. Biophysical and anthropometric measurements including blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, and hip-circumference, as well as clinical records, CIMT, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile, were assessed.

Result: The median (Interquartile range) age of the participants was 41 (35-88) years and the majority (71.7%) were females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) by the Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were 30.3%, 32.4%, and 35.2% respectively. MetS by all criteria was more prevalent among females and participants ≥ 40 years, p<0.05. Low HDLc (93.6-95.5%), Central obesity (86.3-95.5%), and hypertension (80.9-86.4%) were the most frequent components of MetS. HIV-related parameters were not associated with MetS. The overall agreement among MetS criteria was almost perfect between IDF and JIS criteria (k=0.94); and strong between IDF vs. ATP (k=0.82) and ATP vs. JIS (k=0.89). There was no significant difference in the median CIMT in PLHIV with and without MetS across all defining criteria.

Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS in PLHIV is relatively high, particularly among females and older individuals. The correlations between the defining criteria were fairly strong and consistent across subpopulations of PLHIV. MetS based on these criteria, however, do not significantly correlate with rising CIMT.


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