Comparative Study Between Hysterosalpingo-Contrast Sonography and Hysterosalpingography in Evaluating Tubal Patency at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.

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Ibrahim Danladi Muhammad
Umar Suleiman Sabo
Sa’idu Adamu Ibrahim
Aliyu Dayyabu Labaran
Idris Usman Takai


HyCoSy, HSG, Tubal patency, Assessment


Background: Tubal diseases contribute significantly to secondary infertility, affecting 25-35% of couples seeking infertility treatment. Traditional methods for assessing tubal patency, such as laparoscopy and dye tests, are invasive, costly, and require specialized expertise. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an alternative, but it involves pain and radiation exposure. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of Hysterosalpingocontrast Sonography (HyCoSy) using a saline and air mixture to HSG in assessing tubal patency in infertility patients at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study involved 50 consenting patients seeking fertility evaluation. The researchers used a semi-structured questionnaire to gather demographic information. HyCoSy with the saline and air mixture was performed between the 5th and 10th day of the menstrual cycle, followed by HSG within the next five days. The patency of each fallopian tube was assessed, and pain levels experienced during both procedures were recorded using a numerical rating scale.

Results: The results indicated that 68.8% of patients had bilateral patent tubes according to HyCoSy, while 60.4% were found to have patent tubes with HSG. A comparison of findings for individual tubes showed an 89.6% concordance rate between the two tests, with a Kappa index of 0.73, indicating substantial agreement. Importantly, patients reported significantly less pain during the HyCoSy procedure (mean NRS score of 4.1) compared to HSG (mean NRS score of 7.1).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HyCoSy using a saline and air mixture is highly comparable to HSG in assessing tubal patency. Notably, HyCoSy was preferred by patients due to its reduced pain and better tolerance, with minimal adverse effects. This suggests that HyCoSy may be a more patient-friendly and cost-effective alternative for tubal assessment in cases of infertility.

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